The means of communication shared in common by groups of people. Scripture teaches that the diversity of languages in the world is a result of sin, but the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in Acts broke down the barriers of language and nationality.
The origin of different languages
The close relationship between language and national identity
The diversity of languages in the Persian empire
God’s revelation not limited to any single language
Aramaic in the OT 2Ki 18:26 pp Isa 36:11 Aramaic is a language related to Hebrew, known from Assyrian times. Under the influence of the Persian empire Aramaic was the diplomatic language in later OT times. In Palestine, by the time of the NT, it was spoken widely, having largely displaced Hebrew as the everyday language of the Jews. See also Ezr 4:7 The text of Ezr 4:8-6:18 and 7:12-26 is in Aramaic; Jer 10:11 The text of Jer 10:11 is in Aramaic; Da 2:4 The text of Da 2:4-7:28 is in Aramaic.
2Ki 18:26 pp Isa 36:11 Hebrew was the language of Israel in the period of the OT. By the time of the NT, it had been partially displaced in everyday use by Aramaic. See also 2Ki 18:28 pp 2Ch 32:18 pp Isa 36:13; Rev 9:11; Rev 16:16
Jn 19:20 Greek was the major cultural and commercial language of the eastern Mediterranean world. The NT was written in this language, ensuring the rapid spread of the gospel in this region. See also Ac 21:37-39; Rev 9:11
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